1 – ABOUT THE UNFCCC:
GS – III Topic
Environmental Conservation related issues
• About the UNFCCC:
• The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was enacted in 1992 at the Rio Earth Summit, marking the start of the international community’s first organised attempt to address climate change.
• The UNFCCC, commonly known as the Rio Convention, established a framework for action to stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations in the earth’s atmosphere.
• The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) went into effect in 1994.
• The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, also known as the Earth Summit, the Rio Summit, or the Rio Conference, was signed in 1992 during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, also known as the Earth Summit, the Rio Summit, or the Rio Conference.
• The UNFCCC went into effect on March 21, 1994, and 197 nations have ratified it.
• In 1988, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to assess the magnitude and timing of changes, estimate their impacts, present response strategies, and provide an authoritative source of up-to-date interdisciplinary knowledge on climate change.
•The ultimate goal of the Convention is “to achieve, stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphe re at a level that would preclude severe anthropogenic interference with the climate system,” according to Article 2.
• This objective is qualified in that it “should be achieved within a time frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climat e change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner”.
2 – DETAILS OF THE CHAR DHAM PROJECT:
Topic → Indian Culture
• About the Chardham Project:
• The CharDham Pariyojana intends to “increase connection to the Chardham pilgrimage centres in the Himalayas (Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri, and Yamunotri), making journeys to these centres safer, faster, and more convenient.”
• It would widen about 900 kilometres of roadways, including the Tanakpur-Pithoragarh stretch of National Highway (NH) 125, which is part of the Kailash Mansarovar Yatra route.
• National Security Role:
• This project could serve as a key feeder road connecting the India-China border to Army facilities in Dehradun and Meerut, which house missile sites and heavy equipment.
• Uttarakhand State Public Works Department (PWD), Border Roads Organisation (BRO), and National Highway & Infrastructure Development Corporation Limited are the implementing agencies (NHIDCL).
• The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways owns NHIDCL completely.
• Concerns about the environmental impact of the project:
• The project is expected to destroy 690 hectares of forest and 55,000 trees, as well as 20 million cubic metres of soil.
• The indiscriminate harvesting or removal of vegetation for road widening can be hazardous to biodiversity and regional ecology. • Among the remarkable species found there are the Kalij Pheasant (Lophura leucomelanos, Schedule-I), Tragopans (Tragopan melanocephalus & Tragopan satyra, Schedule-I), and different species of Vultures (Schedule-I), as well as the endangered fish Golden Mahseer (Tor putitora).
• While there is no link between the CharDham project and the recent Chamoli glacier break tragedy, uncontrolled blasting during road construction creates cracks in the soil and rocks, thereby increasing the risk of future flash floods.
3 – WHAT IS WHOLESALE PRICE INDEX:
Topic → Indian Economy
• About the WPI:
• It tracks variations in the prices of commodities sold and traded in bulk by wholesalers to other merchants.
• The Ministry of Commerce and Industry’s Office of Economic Adviser publishes this report.
• In India, it is the most extensively used inflation indicator.
• The general population does not buy things at wholesale prices, which is a major critique of this index.
• In 2017, the base year of the All-India WPI was changed from 2004-05 to 2011-12.
• Difference between CPI & WPI:
• The Consumer Price Index (CPI) and the Wholesale Price Index (WPI) are two different types of inflation.
• WPI measures inflation at the production level, while CPI measures price fluctuations at the consumer level.
• WPI does not account for changes in service pricing, but CPI does.
4 – ABOUT THE ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK:
Topic → International Organizations
• ADB’s Background:
• It’s a bank for regional development.
• On December 19, 1966, the company was founded.
• Manila, Philippines is where the company’s headquarters are located.
• Observer at the United Nations.
• Who can be a member of it:
• Non-regional developed countries and members of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP, formerly the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East or ECAFE) are allowed to join the bank.
• The Asian Development Bank today has 68 members, 49 of them are from Asia.
• Right to vote:
• It is based on the World Bank and uses a weighted voting method in which votes are given proportionally to members’ capital contributions.
• Japan and the United States (each with 15.6 percent of total shares) are the two largest owners in the Asian Development Bank as of December 31, 2019, followed by the People’s Republic of China (6.4 percent), India (6.3 percent), and Australia (6.3 percent) (5.8 percent ).
• Roles and responsibilities:
• Dedicated to alleviating poverty in Asia and the Pacific by promoting inclusive economic growth, environmental sustainability, and regional integration.
• This is accomplished through investments in infrastructure, health care services, finance and public administration systems, as well as other sectors, such as assisting nations in preparing for the effects of climate change or better managing their natural resources.
5 – WHO ARE KONYAK NAGAS:
Prelims Specific Topic
• Tribe of Konyak Nagas:
• With a population of around 3 lakh, the Konyaks’ territory extends into Arunachal Pradesh, with a sizable presence in Myanmar.
• They are reputed to be one of Nagaland’s most ferocious warrior tribes.
• As late as the 1980s, the Konyaks were the last to abandon the practise of head-hunting, which involved severing the heads of foes after attacking other tribes.
• Importance of this tribe in the Naga Peace Process:
• Mon is the only district in Nagaland where the separatist group has been unable to establish a base camp, owing to Konyak resistance.
• As a result, the Konyaks are critical to the successful conclusion of the peace talks as well as the state’s post-talk peace process.